Daf is a pecussion in Iranian music and made of a wooden ring of 50 to 55 cm in diameter which is covered on one side by skin. It contains metal rings in the form of chains hanging to the wooden ring from inside. Daf is played by tapping with fingers and palms on the skin.
This instrument is a Persian percussion similar to Dayereh but bigger than that and with a more bass voice. The skin used to make Daf is from some animals like sheep and goat. In the past, deer skin was used to have a better resonance, and today plastic usually replaces skin.
Daf is used in classical music and at the mystical ceremonies. In Kurdistan and Kermanshahan provinces, playing Daf has a special place among the people. The prevalence of Daf in Kurdistan is due to mystical rituals in this area.
Two famous Daf players are Bijan Kamkar and Masoud Habibi. Master Kamkar has played a significant role in the characterization of this instrument in Iranian music, and Master Habibi has made it completely technical like other instruments by inventing a modern way of playing it.